Wednesday, September 20, 2017

The raising of many saints in Mt 27:52-53: exegesis and a hypothesis

Abstract

NT scholar and Christian apologist Michael R. Licona, in his 2010 book "The Resurrection of Jesus: A New Historiographical Approach", interpreted the passage in Mt 27:52-53 about the raising of many saints at the time of Jesus' death as a poetic device written with eschatological Jewish texts in mind. Here I argue that it is a historical account written with two scriptural passages in mind: first the prophecy in Eze 37:12-14, of which it is a precise literal fulfillment, and secondly the killings in Mt 2:16-17, of which it is an undoing. Further, I propose the hypothesis that the saints resurrected in Mt 27:52 were precisely the children killed in Mt 2:16, and show that this hypothesis allows to overcome neatly and easily all difficulties posed by the passage.


1. Introduction

New Testament scholar and Christian apologist Michael R. Licona published in 2010 a book titled "The Resurrection of Jesus: A New Historiographical Approach" [1]. While the book has received good reviews by prominent New Testament scholars and historians [2], it has given rise to a controversy on Licona's exegesis of a passage of Matthew's Gospel following Jesus' death:

"The tombs were opened, and many bodies of the saints who had fallen asleep were raised; and coming out of the tombs after His resurrection they entered the holy city and appeared to many." (Mt 27:52-53)

On that passage, Licona wrote:

“it seems to me that an understanding of the language in Matthew 27:52-53 as ‘special effects’ with eschatological Jewish texts and thought in mind is most plausible. There is further support for this interpretation. If the tombs opened and the saints being raised upon Jesus’ death was not strange enough, Matthew adds that they did not come out of their tombs until after Jesus’ resurrection. What were they doing between Friday afternoon and early Sunday morning? Were they standing in the now open doorways of their tombs and waiting?
[...]
It seems best to regard this difficult text in Matthew as a poetic device added to communicate that the Son of God had died and that impending judgment awaited Israel.” (pp. 552-53)

This non-historical exegesis was objected to by evangelical theologian and philosopher Norman L. Geisler [3], to whom Licona replied:

"Further research over the last year in the Greco-Roman literature has led me to reexamine the position I took in my book. Although additional research certainly remains, at present I am just as inclined to understand the narrative of the raised saints in Matthew 27 as a report of a factual (i.e., literal) event as I am to view it as an apocalyptic symbol. It may also be a report of a real event described partially in apocalyptic terms. I will be pleased to revise the relevant section in a future edition of my book." [4]

Shortly thereafter, Baptist theologian Albert Mohler objected to Licona's exegesis in the same line as Geisler [5]. Then, at a 2012 roundtable, Licona said:

"Since  my  book  was  published,  I  have  found  additional  ancient  reports  that  confirm  this  interpretation  and  others  that  cast  doubt  on  it. Accordingly,  I  am  presently  undecided  pertaining  to  how  Matthew  intended his readers to understand the saints raised at Jesus’ death. More research needs to be conducted. It’s a tough passage." [6]

As we will see, no extra-biblical source is needed for the exegesis of this passage, either eschatological Jewish texts or Greco-Roman literature, but first of all a passage of the book of prophet Ezekiel, which notably had been pointed out online in 1997 [7], and then the other NT passages which contain the verb usually translated in this passage as "appeared".


2. Mt 27:52-53 as literal fulfillment of Eze 37:12-14

It can be immediately seen that the passage in question fulfills literally this promise that the LORD made to Israel through prophet Ezekiel:

“Therefore prophesy and say to them, ‘Thus says the Lord GOD, “Behold, I will open your graves and cause you to come up out of your graves, My people; and I will bring you into the land of Israel. Then you will know that I am the LORD, when I have opened your graves and caused you to come up out of your graves, My people. I will put My Spirit within you and you will come to life, and I will place you on your own land. Then you will know that I, the LORD, have spoken and done it,” declares the LORD.’” (Eze 37:12-14).

I will highlight the exact correlation between the two passages by placing each action promised by the LORD through Ezequiel, in its two statements, next to its fulfillment recorded by Matthew:

1. Behold, I will open your graves / when I have opened your graves

1. The tombs were opened, and many bodies of the saints who had fallen asleep were raised;

2. and cause you to come up out of your graves, My people; / and [I have] caused you to come up out of your graves, My people.

2. and coming out of the tombs after His resurrection

3. and I will bring you into the land of Israel. / and I will place you on your own land.

3. they entered the holy city and appeared to many.

Actually, I think that Matthew did not state that this event was fulfillment of a prophecy in the Old Testament, as he did in many other passages of his Gospel, because the correlation between these two passages was so precise, so clear, so evident, that he thought it was not even necessary to point it out. Since he was writing for people familiar with the Hebrew Scriptures, his readers would notice the correlation immediately by themselves.

We should note that this physical fulfillment of the prophecy in Eze 37:12-14 is a sign of its way more important spiritual fulfillment in all Christian faithful. In other words, this multiple resurrection to physical mortal life was, just as Lazarus' resurrection to physical mortal life, a sign of the spiritual resurrection to eternal life which Jesus earned for us with His death and resurrection, which we receive when we are united to His death and resurrection in baptism (Rom 6:3-5), and which will result, at Christ's glorious return, in our resurrection to physical immortal life.


3. Mt 27:52-53 as undoing of Mt 2:16-17

Considering the following data:

a. "For this reason the Son of God was revealed, so that He might undo the works of the devil." (1 Jn 3:8).

b. Matthew is the only Evangelist who recorded the fact that king Herod "the Great" sent men to "put to death all the boys in Bethlehem and in all its vicinity from two years old and under," (Mt 2:16) after the visit of the Magi.

c. This fact, together with many others narrated by historian Josephus, shows clearly that Herod was a man to whom these words of Jesus applied fully: "You are of your father the devil, and you want to do the desires of your father. He was a murderer from the beginning," (Jn 8:44).

and looking in parallel at the narrations - exclusive to Matthew - of these two events that happened at the beginning and the end of Jesus' life respectively:

- the execution of children by Herod after Jesus' birth and as a reaction against it

- the resurrection of saints by Jesus (*) after his death and as a fruit of it

we can perceive an additional logic in Matthew's inclusion of both events in his Gospel: while Jesus' birth gave occasion for Herod to - as a reaction against this event - put innocent children to physical death, Jesus' death in filial obedience to the Father - which was his full manifestation as Son of God, according to his words: «When you have lifted up the Son of Man, then you will know that I Am, and that I do nothing from Myself, but as the Father taught Me, I speak these things. And He who sent Me is with Me; He has not left Me alone, for I always do the things that are pleasing to Him.» (Jn 8:28-29) - gave occasion for Him to - as a fruit of this event - bring back to physical temporal life people who, spiritually, were innocent (which is clear from their description as "saints" by Matthew), as a sign of the superabundance of spiritual eternal life available to all men thanks to his merits in his obedience to the Father to the point of death, even death on a cross (Rom 5:19 and Phil 2:8). In other words, this undoing of the privation of physical temporal life of perhaps a few dozen was a sign of the undoing of the privation of spiritual eternal life of perhaps thousands of millions.

(*) Let us note that this undoing a work of the devil was performed by the Son of God through the human nature that He had assumed, since it was Jesus Who, on arriving in the state of disembodied soul to the Limbo of the Fathers or Abraham's Bosom, ordered these saints who were there awaiting the Redemption to rise from the dead.


4. Hypothesis: identity of the subjects of Mt 2:16-17 and Mt 27:52-53

To the exegesis done to this point, I add now the following hypothesis: the saints raised in Mt 27:52 were precisely the children murdered in Mt 2:16, so that Jesus, on the occasion and as a fruit of his death, undid the specific works of the devil done by Herod on the occasion of his birth. In my view, this hypothesis:

a. is fully compatible with the universal liturgical practice since the V century of commemorating the Holy Innocents, because commemorating them as saints implies to believe that they are enjoying the beatific vision, not that they were taken to the beatific vision right after Jesus' death together with Moses, the prophets, and all the rigtheous that were awaiting the Redemption in the Limbo of the Fathers or Abraham's Bosom. They could have arrived to the beatific vision through a holy life on earth. Let us note that leading these people to the beatific vision through a holy and spiritually fruitful life on earth procures more glory to God (epistemic glory = manifestation of his ontic glory) than taking them directly to the beatific vision.

b. explains the term "the Holy City" in Mt 27:53, which, if understood as referring to physical Jerusalem, carries a strong cognitive dissonance. Would precisely Matthew, who a few lines before had narrated that "All the people answered, “His blood be on us and on our children!”" (Mt 27:25), refer to Jerusalem as "the Holy City"? It is far more plausible that Matthew is referring here to the New Jerusalem, the spiritual Jerusalem, the Church: the raised saints appeared, or better said manifested, disclosed, revealed themselves as such (*), to members of the Church.

c. explains the total absence of social impact in Jerusalem out of that resurrection of "many" (around 20 in this hypothesis) saints, since given that they had died 35 years ago while being less than 2 years old, and that they had been raised as adults, any inhabitant of Jerusalem that crossed ways with one of them would have no idea at all of whom he was, even less of the fact that he had been raised from the dead, and would simply take him as just another Jew that had come from far away to Jerusalem for the Passover. Only those members of the Church to whom these raised saints manifested, disclosed, revealed themselves as such (*) could come to know what had really happened.

(*) The word in Mt 27:53 usually translated as "appeared" is enephanisthēsan, 3rd person plural of the aorist indicative passive tense of the verb emphanizō, which appears 10 times in the NT, with the following meanings in the other passages:

Jn 14:21-22: manifest, disclose, reveal (oneself)
Act 23:15: give notice, make a report, notify
Act 23:22: report, notify
Act 24:1; 25:2; 25:15: present (a case against X), inform (Y about X)
Heb 9:24: appear
Heb 11:14: make manifest, make it clear

From these occurrences, it is clear that the expression in Mt 27:53 can be plausibly understood as meaning that the raised saints manifested, disclosed, revealed themselves (as such) to many, that they notified many about their resurrection.

It is also clear that these "many" to whom the raised saints manfested themselves were exclusively members of the initial community of disciples of Jesus,  because they were the only ones who could believe their testimony. Just think of the reaction of an inhabitant of Jerusalem in 30 AD (or of any other place in any other time) if a stranger approaches him saying: "Hi, I was dead for 35 years and have just been raised from the dead. Would you be so kind as to provide me with lodging and food for a while?"

Finally, regarding the question that Licona asks in his book about what the raised saints were doing between Friday afternoon and early Sunday morning, a plausible answer is that they alternated between praying and receiving from their guardian angels a crash course on the basic skills for adult life.


References

[1] Michael R. Licona, The Resurrection of Jesus: A New Historiographical Approach. Westmont, IL, USA: InterVarsity Press, 2010.

[2] https://www.ivpress.com/the-resurrection-of-jesus

[3] Norman L. Geisler. (2011). An Open Letter to Mike Licona on his View of the Resurrected Saints in Matthew 27:52-53 [Online].
Available: http://normangeisler.com/an-open-letter-to-mike-licona-on-his-view-of-the-resurrected-saints-in-matthew-27/

[4] Michael R. Licona. (2011, August 31). Press Release: Michael Licona Response to Norm Geisler [Online].
Available: http://credohouse.org/blog/press-release-michael-licona-response-to-norm-geisler

[5] Albert Mohler. (2011, September 14). The Devil is in the Details: Biblical Inerrancy and the Licona Controversy [Online].
Available: http://www.albertmohler.com/2011/09/14/the-devil-is-in-the-details-biblical-inerrancy-and-the-licona-controversy/

[6] Southeastern Theological Review Vol. 3, No. 1 Summer 2012.
Available (1): https://www.southeasternreview.com/s/STR_3_1_web.pdf
Available (2): https://www.risenjesus.com/wp-content/uploads/a-roundtable-discussion-with-michael-licona-on-the-resurrection-of-jesus.pdf

[7] Glen Miller. (1997, April 7). Good question.... ...SURELY that thing about all those resurrected people walking around in Jerusalem after Jesus' death is bogus, right? [Online].
Available: http://christianthinktank.com/oddrise.html

La resurrección de muchos santos en Mt 27,52-53: exégesis y una hipótesis

Resumen

El estudioso del NT y apologista cristiano Michael R. Licona, en su libro "The Resurrection of Jesus: A New Historiographical Approach" publicado en 2010, interpretó el pasaje en Mt 27,52-53 sobre la resurrección de muchos santos al momento de la muerte de Jesús como un recurso poético escrito con textos escatológicos judíos en mente. Aquí yo argumento que el pasaje es una narración histórica escrita con dos pasajes de la Sagrada Escritura en mente: en primer lugar la profecía en Eze 37,12-14, de la cual es un cumplimiento literal preciso, y en segundo lugar los asesinatos en Mt 2,16-17, de los cuales es un deshacimiento. Adicionalmente, propongo la hipótesis de que los santos resucitados en Mt 27,52 fueron precisamente los niños asesinados en Mt 2,16, y muestro que esta hipótesis permite superar limpia y fácilmente todas las dificultades planteadas por el pasaje.



1. Introducción

El estudioso del Nuevo Testamento y apologista cristiano Michael R. Licona publicó en 2010 un libro titulado "The Resurrection of Jesus: A New Historiographical Approach" [1]. Aunque el libro ha recibido buenas reviews por eminentes estudiosos del NT e historiadores [2], ha dado pie a una controversia sobre la exégesis que Licona hace de un pasaje en el Evangelio de Mateo que sigue a la muerte de Jesús:

"Se abrieron los sepulcros, y muchos cuerpos de santos difuntos resucitaron. Y saliendo de los sepulcros después de la resurrección de Él, entraron en la Ciudad Santa y se aparecieron a muchos." (Mt 27,52-53)

Sobre ese pasaje, Licona escribió:

“it seems to me that an understanding of the language in Matthew 27:52-53 as ‘special effects’ with eschatological Jewish texts and thought in mind is most plausible. There is further support for this interpretation. If the tombs opened and the saints being raised upon Jesus’ death was not strange enough, Matthew adds that they did not come out of their tombs until after Jesus’ resurrection. What were they doing between Friday afternoon and early Sunday morning? Were they standing in the now open doorways of their tombs and waiting?
[...]
It seems best to regard this difficult text in Matthew as a poetic device added to communicate that the Son of God had died and that impending judgment awaited Israel.” (pp. 552-53)

Esta exégesis ahistórica fue objetada por el teólogo y filósofo evangélico Norman L. Geisler [3], a quien Licona respondió:

"Further research over the last year in the Greco-Roman literature has led me to reexamine the position I took in my book. Although additional research certainly remains, at present I am just as inclined to understand the narrative of the raised saints in Matthew 27 as a report of a factual (i.e., literal) event as I am to view it as an apocalyptic symbol. It may also be a report of a real event described partially in apocalyptic terms. I will be pleased to revise the relevant section in a future edition of my book." [4]

Poco tiempo después, el teólogo bautista Albert Mohler objetó a la exégesis de Licona en la misma línea que Geisler [5]. Luego, en una mesa redonda en  2012, Licona dijo:

"Since  my  book  was  published,  I  have  found  additional  ancient  reports  that  confirm  this  interpretation  and  others  that  cast  doubt  on  it. Accordingly,  I  am  presently  undecided  pertaining  to  how  Matthew  intended his readers to understand the saints raised at Jesus’ death. More research needs to be conducted. It’s a tough passage." [6]

Como veremos, para la exégesis de este pasaje no es necesaria fuente extra-bíblica alguna, ya sea textos escatológicos judíos o literatura greco-romana, sino ante todo un pasaje del libro del profeta Ezequiel, lo cual notablemente había sido indicado online en 1997 [7], y luego los otros pasajes del NT que contienen el verbo usualmente traducido en este pasaje como "se aparecieron".



2. Mt 27,52-53 como cumplimiento literal de Eze 37,12-14

Es inmediato percibir que el pasaje en cuestión cumple literalmente esta promesa que el Señor había hecho a Israel a través del profeta Ezequiel

«Por eso, profetiza. Les dirás: ‘Así dice el Señor Yahveh: “He aquí que Yo abro vuestras tumbas; os haré salir de vuestras tumbas, pueblo mío, y os llevaré de nuevo al suelo de Israel. Sabréis que Yo Soy Yahveh cuando abra vuestras tumbas y os haga salir de vuestras tumbas, pueblo mío. Infundiré mi espíritu en vosotros y viviréis; os estableceré en vuestro suelo, y sabréis que Yo, Yahveh, lo digo y lo hago,” oráculo de Yahveh.’» (Eze 37,12-14)

A continuación resaltaré la correlación exacta entre los dos pasajes poniendo cada acción prometida por el Señor a través de Ezequiel, en sus dos enunciaciones, junto a su cumplimiento registrado por Mateo:

1. He aquí que Yo abro vuestras tumbas; / cuando abra vuestras tumbas

1. Se abrieron los sepulcros, y muchos cuerpos de santos difuntos resucitaron.

2. os haré salir de vuestras tumbas, pueblo mío, / y os haga salir de vuestras tumbas, pueblo mío.

2. Y saliendo de los sepulcros después de la resurrección de Él,

3. y os llevaré de nuevo al suelo de Israel. / os estableceré en vuestro suelo,

3. entraron en la Ciudad Santa y se aparecieron a muchos.

De hecho, pienso que Mateo no escribió que este evento era cumplimiento de una profecía del Antiguo Testamento, como hizo en muchos otros pasajes de su Evangelio, porque la correlación entre estos dos pasajes era tan precisa, tan clara, tan evidente, que pensó que no era siquiera necesario señalarla. Dado que él escribía para gente familiarizada con las Escrituras hebreas, sus lectores iban a notar la correlación inmediatamente por sí mismos.

Notemos que este cumplimiento físico de la profecía en Eze 37,12-14 es signo de su mucho más importante cumplimiento espiritual en todos los fieles cristianos. En otras palabras, esta resurrección múltiple a una vida física mortal fue, tal como la resurrección de Lázaro a una vida física mortal, un signo de la resurrección espiritual a la vida eterna que Jesús nos ganó con su muerte y resurrección, la cual recibimos cuando somos unidos a su muerte y resurrección en el bautismo (Rom 6,3-5), y la cual resultará, en la vuelta gloriosa de Cristo, en nuestra resurrección a una vida física inmortal.



3. Mt 27,52-53 como el deshacer de Mt 2,16-17

Considerando los siguientes datos:

a. "El Hijo de Dios se manifestó para deshacer las obras del diablo." (1 Jn 3,8).

b. Mateo es el único Evangelista que registró el hecho de que el rey Herodes I "el Grande" "envió a matar a todos los niños de Belén y de toda su comarca, de dos años para abajo," (Mt 2,16) luego de la visita de los Magos.

c. Ese hecho, junto con muchos otros narrados por el historiador Josefo, muestra claramente que Herodes era un hombre a quien se aplicaban cabalmente estas palabras de Jesús: "Vosotros sois de vuestro padre el diablo y queréis cumplir los deseos de vuestro padre. Él era homicida desde el principio" (Jn 8,44).

y mirando en paralelo las narraciones - exclusivas de Mateo - de estos dos eventos que ocurrieron al principio y fin de la vida de Jesús respectivamente:

- la ejecución de niños por Herodes luego del nacimiento de Jesús y como reacción contra éste

- la resurrección de santos por Jesús (*) luego de su muerte y como fruto de ésta

podemos percibir una lógica adicional en la inclusión por Mateo de ambos eventos en su Evangelio: mientras que el nacimiento de Jesús dio ocasión a que Herodes, como reacción contra este evento, diera muerte física a niños inocentes, la muerte de Jesús en obediencia filial al Padre - la cual fue su plena manifestación como Hijo de Dios, según sus palabras: «Cuando hayáis levantado al Hijo del hombre, entonces sabréis que Yo Soy, y que no hago nada por mi propia cuenta, sino que, lo que el Padre me ha enseñado, eso es lo que hablo. Y el que me ha enviado está conmigo: no me ha dejado solo, porque Yo hago siempre lo que le agrada a Él.» (Jn 8,28-29) - dio ocasión a que Jesús, como fruto de este evento, devolviera la vida física temporal a personas que, espiritualmente, eran inocentes (lo cual es claro a partir de su descripción como "santos" por Mateo), como signo de la superabundancia de la vida espiritual eterna disponible para todos los hombres gracias a sus méritos en su obediencia al Padre hasta la muerte de cruz (Rom 5,19 y Fil 2,8). En otras palabras, este deshacer de la privación de vida física temporal de tal vez unas pocas decenas fue signo del deshacer de la privación de vida espiritual eterna de tal vez miles de millones.

(*) Notemos que este deshacer una obra del diablo fue realizado por el Hijo de Dios a través de la naturaleza humana que Él había asumido, pues fue Jesús Quien, al llegar en estado de alma separada del cuerpo al Limbo de los Padres o Seno de Abraham, ordenó a estos santos que estaban allí aguardando la Redención que resucitaran.



4. Hipótesis: identidad de los sujetos de Mt 2,16-17 y Mt 27,52-53

A la exégesis hecha hasta aquí, agrego ahora la siguiente hipótesis: los santos resucitados en Mt 27,52 fueron justamente los niños asesinados en Mt 2,16, tal que Dios, con ocasión y como fruto de la muerte de Jesús, deshizo la obra específica del diablo hecha por Herodes con ocasión del nacimiento de Jesús. A mi juicio, esta hipótesis:

a. es totalmente compatible con la tradición litúrgica universal desde el siglo V de conmemorar los Santos Inocentes, porque conmemorarlos como santos implica creer que están gozando de la visión beatífica, no que fueron llevados a la visión beatífica inmediatamente después de la muerte de Jesús junto con Moisés, los profetas y todos los justos que estaban aguardando en el Limbo de los Padres o Seno de Abraham. Pueden haber llegado a la visión beatífica a través de una vida santa sobre la tierra. Notemos que conducir a estas personas a la visión beatífica a través de una vida santa y espiritualmente fructuosa sobre la tierra procura mayor gloria a Dios (gloria epistémica = manifestación de su gloria óntica) que hacerlos llegar directamente a la visión beatífica.

b. explica el término "la ciudad santa" en Mt 27,53, el cual, si se entiende como referiéndose a la Jerusalén física, conlleva una fuerte disonancia cognitiva. ¿Justamente Mateo, que pocas líneas antes había narrado que "todo el pueblo gritó: -¡Su sangre sobre nosotros y nuestros hijos!" (Mt 27,25) iba a referirse a Jerusalén como "la ciudad santa"? Es mucho más plausible que Mateo se refiere aquí a la Nueva Jerusalén, la Jerusalén espiritual, la Iglesia: los santos resucitados se aparecieron, o mejor dicho se manifestaron como tales (*), a miembros de la Iglesia.

c. explica la total ausencia de impacto social en Jerusalén de esa resurrección de "muchos" santos (alrededor de 20 en esta hipótesis), porque dado que habían muerto hacía 35 años siendo menores de dos años y que habían resucitado como adultos, cualquier habitante de Jerusalén que se cruzara con uno de ellos en su camino no tendría la menor idea de quién era ni mucho menos de que había resucitado, y simplemente lo tomaría como otro judío que había venido de lejos a Jerusalén para la Pascua. Solamente aquellos miembros de la Iglesia a quienes esos santos resucitados se manifestasen como tales (*) podían llegar a conocer lo que realmente había ocurrido.

(*) La palabra en Mt 27,53 traducida usualmente como "aparecieron" es enephanisthēsan, 3a persona plural del tiempo aorista indicativo pasivo del verbo emphanizō, el cual aparece 10 veces en el NT, con los siguientes significados en los otros pasajes:

Jn 14,21-22: manifestarse (uno mismo)
Hec 23,15: notificar (si se lo tradujese literalmente, lo cual es inusual)
Hec 23,22: dar a conocer, comunicar
Hec 24,1; 25,2; 25,15: presentar (una acusación contra X), informar (a Y sobre X)
Heb 9,24: presentarse, comparecer
Heb 11,14: manifestar, dar a entender

A partir de estas ocurrencias, es claro que la expresión en Mt 27,53 puede ser plausiblemente entendida en el sentido de que los santos resucitados se manifestaron (como tales) a muchos, o sea notificaron a muchos acerca de su resurrección.

Es también claro que esos "muchos" a quienes los santos resucitados se manifestaron eran exclusivamente miembros de la comunidad inicial de discípulos de Jesús, porque ellos eran los únicos que podrían creer su testimonio. Simplemente pensemos en la reacción de un habitante de Jerusalén en 30 AD (o de cualquier otro lugar en cualquier otro tiempo) si un extraño se le acercase diciendo: "Hola, estuve 35 años muerto y acabo de resucitar. ¿Serías tan amable de darme alojamiento y comida por un tiempo?"

Finalmente, considerando la pregunta que Licona hace en su libro acerca de qué estuvieron haciendo los santos resucitados entre la tasrde del Viernes Santo y la madrugada del Domingo de Resurrección, una respuesta plausible es que alternaron entre orar y recibir de sus ángeles guardianes un curso intensivo sobre las habilidades básicas para la vida adulta.


Referencias

[1] Michael R. Licona, The Resurrection of Jesus: A New Historiographical Approach. Westmont, IL, USA: InterVarsity Press, 2010.

[2] https://www.ivpress.com/the-resurrection-of-jesus

[3] Norman L. Geisler. (2011). An Open Letter to Mike Licona on his View of the Resurrected Saints in Matthew 27:52-53 [Online].
Available: http://normangeisler.com/an-open-letter-to-mike-licona-on-his-view-of-the-resurrected-saints-in-matthew-27/

[4] Michael R. Licona. (2011, August 31). Press Release: Michael Licona Response to Norm Geisler [Online].
Available: http://credohouse.org/blog/press-release-michael-licona-response-to-norm-geisler

[5] Albert Mohler. (2011, September 14). The Devil is in the Details: Biblical Inerrancy and the Licona Controversy [Online].
Available: http://www.albertmohler.com/2011/09/14/the-devil-is-in-the-details-biblical-inerrancy-and-the-licona-controversy/

[6] Southeastern Theological Review Vol. 3, No. 1 Summer 2012.
Available (1): https://www.southeasternreview.com/s/STR_3_1_web.pdf
Available (2): https://www.risenjesus.com/wp-content/uploads/a-roundtable-discussion-with-michael-licona-on-the-resurrection-of-jesus.pdf

[7] Glen Miller. (1997, April 7). Good question.... ...SURELY that thing about all those resurrected people walking around in Jerusalem after Jesus' death is bogus, right? [Online].
Available: http://christianthinktank.com/oddrise.html